Safety and Health information
   Note: LAWG Cadet Programs/Activities will follow the following guidelines. Medical officer will brief particpants on precautions.


                                                                              Hydration/Dehydration Chart

To check your hydration level, check the color of your urine. The color should be light to clear. If you are taking supplements, the color may darken for several hours.

      


































                                                                                            From CAPP 52-18
                                                        TRAINING IN HOT ENVIRONMENTS

For all cadet activities, commanders must adhere to the fluid replacement and work load limitations described in Attachment 2. These policies are based on USAF guidelines and require commanders to monitor the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT index is a combination of temperature measurements that considers dry air temperature, relative humidity, and radiant heating. Any local weather station can provide you with the WBGT, or you can compute it yourself at http://marineweather.com/wxcalc.html. Compliance with these policies is mandated by CAPR 52-16, Cadet Program Management.

Water Intake. Adequate water intake is essential to make up for water lost during exercise. Encourage cadets to begin hydrating several days prior to a lengthy and/or high performance exposure to hot conditions.

Attachment 2 provides guidelines for fluid replacement based on the WBGT and activity level.

♦ Drink Frequently. It is better to drink small amounts of water frequently than to drink larger amounts less frequently. If cadets are going to be exercising or training in the field for a prolonged time, they should carry a canteen of water with them. Keep drinking for another hour after exercising, but don’t drink more than 1½ quarts of water per hour, or 12 quarts per day.
♦ Avoid Soda. Cadets should not drink caffeinated and carbonated beverages such as soda during exercise or if they will be exercising later. Instead, drink water or isotonic beverages (sports drinks).

Work and Exercise Intensity . When the WBGT is high, it’s important that cadets don’t over-exert themselves, even if they stretch and drink plenty of water. Attachment 2 categorizes different types of exercise as easy, moderate, or hard, and limits the activities that may be performed in hot environments.

Heat-Related Injuries. Safety is everyone’s job. Commanders, trainers, and cadets should be taught how to recognize and initiate first aid treatment for heat-related injuries. Attachment 2, table 3 identifies symptoms of heat stress and required actions.

                                                            NUTRITION INTRODUCTION
During ages 10-20, the body goes through tremendous changes. Males are basically adding muscle and blood volume and possibly overeating to satisfy their appetites. Females are adding some extra fat, which often motivates them to diet unnecessarily to stay slim. Unfortunately, male overeating and female dieting can lead to health problems down the road. Food choices made during this time can have an enormous effect on how you currently feel and affect your health and well-being.

What sort of decisions should cadets make regarding nutrition? Choose foods that can have a positive effect on your health. Start by following the dietary guidelines set by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (DOA) and Health and Human Services (HHS):

♦ Eat a variety of foods
♦ Balance the food you eat with physical activity – maintain or improve your weight
♦ Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables, and fruits
♦ Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
♦ Choose a diet moderate in sugars, salt, and sodium
♦ Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet your growing body’s requirements
♦ Avoid alcoholic beverages – as a cadet and adolescent, it is not only illegal, it is a health hazard.

THE FOOD PYRAMID
The food pyramid is a general guide you can use to make daily food choices. It divides the five basic food groups into four different levels.

The Food Pyramid
The bottom level is the bread, cereal, rice and pasta group. These are complex carbohydrates or starches and your primary source of energy.

The second level contains the fruit and vegetable groups. These are simple carbohydrates loaded with vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.

The third level is comprised of the milk, yogurt, and cheese group and the meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs and nuts group. These foods provide protein and are the building blocks of the body.

The apex of the pyramid includes fats, oils, and sweets and should be used sparingly.

BALANCE, VARIETY, AND MODERATION

When considering how to apply the Food Pyramid and the DOA/HHS guidelines to your life, three basic ideas should be kept in mind for healthy eating: balance, variety and moderation.

Balance. A simple way to look at balancing a meal or a substantial snack is to choose something from each of the bottom three levels of the pyramid. You can create a meal or snack that is balanced but not excessive. Another recommendation for balancing meals is to eat small balanced meals throughout the day. You definitely do not want to skip meals as it can lead to overeating at the next meal. Those who skip breakfast or other meals tend to have poorer nutrition than those who eat regular meals throughout the day.

Variety. The second key idea in healthy eating is “variety.” No one food has all the nutrients a person needs. So the greater the variety of foods you choose in your diet, the greater the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients you consume.

Let’s break it down into the levels of the pyramid again. Carbohydrates are powerhouses for vitamins, minerals, fiber and energy. Always choose whole grains when possible and fruits and vegetables rich in color. Protein foods are also very rich in vitamins and minerals. Always choose lean meats and dairy products and prepare them in low fat ways.

Fats also provide needed nutrients but should not make up more than 30% of your total calories per day. Sugars provide a lot of calories with very little nutrients.

Moderation. The third key ingredient to a healthy diet is “moderation.” This is where we take a look at serving sizes. The Food Pyramid offers a range of servings recommended from each food group. The smallest number of servings equals the minimum needed to obtain the nutrients that the body requires. A general rule of thumb for a serving is ½ cup. So, if you eat 1½ cups of pasta you have consumed 3 servings. Standardized nutrition labels, called “Nutrition Facts,” are found on most packaging and can be helpful in determining how much is in a serving. How many servings you need depends on your age and activity level. Active teenage boys need about 2800 calories per day and should eat the highest range of servings. Active teenage girls require about 2200 calories per day and should eat the middle range of servings. Those who are inactive and/or overweight should eat the lowest range of servings.

EXCESSIVENESS IN WEIGHT: OBESITY AND THINNESS

Many teens have a difficult time projecting a healthy weight for themselves. Girls especially may think they need to be thinner than they are, or should be. Extraordinary concern or obsession for thinness leads some teens to the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa (dieting to starvation) or bulimia (overeating and then vomiting).

To determine a healthy weight, it is important to consult a health professional such as your family doctor or a registered dietitian. Often, if an adolescent needs to lose weight, the only change necessary is to increase exercise or activity. Remember, it is important to continue eating a variety of foods while cutting down on fats and sugars. Losing weight quickly on a very-low-calorie diet is never a good idea for anyone. Athletes especially need to be aware that very-low calorie diets can affect athletic performance. Under no circumstances should you drink less fluid in an attempt to lose weight.

WATER

Another essential ingredient for a healthy diet, but not represented in the Food Pyramid, is water. Water is the beverage of champions. Eight to ten glasses of water are needed each day. Water makes up a large percentage of every part of your body and has many vital functions. It is the vehicle for flushing out waste products. It works as a mild laxative and is the only liquid consumed that does not require extra work to metabolize or excrete it. Water is essential for maintaining proper fluid balance and muscle tone. It also works to keep the skin healthy and resilient. Drinking water is habit forming; the more you drink the more you want.